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PRESIDENT

The President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of elected members of both Houses of Parliament and Legislative Assemblies of the states in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. To secure uniformity among state inter se as Well as parity between the states, as a whole, and the Union, suitable weightage is given to each vote.

President must be a citizen of India, not less than 35 years of age and qualified for election as member of the Lok Sabha. His term of office is five years and he is eligible for re-election. His removal from office is to be in accordance with procedure prescribed in Article 61 of the Constitution. He may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Vice-President, resign his office.

Executive power of the Union is vested in the President and is exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution. Supreme command of defence forces of the Union also vests in him. The President summons, prorogues, addresses, sends messages to Parliament and dissolves the Lok Sabha; promulgates Ordinances at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session; makes recommendations for introducing financial and money bills and gives assent to bills; grants pardons, reprieves, respites or remission of punishment or suspends, remits or commutes sentences in certain cases. When there is a failure of the constitutional machinery in a state, he can assume to himself all or any of the functions of the government of that state. The President can proclaim emergency in the country if he is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby security of India or any part of its territory is threatened whether by war or external aggression or armed rebellion.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE VISIT: www.presidentofindia.nic.in

VICE-PRESIDENT

The Vice-President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. He must be a citizen of India, not less than 35 years of age and eligible for election as a member of the Rajya Sabha.

His term of office is five years and he is eligible for re-election. His removal from office is to be in accordance with procedure prescribed in Article 67 b.

The Vice-President is ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and acts as President when the latter is unable to discharge his functions due to absence, illness or any other cause or till the election of a new President (to be held within six months when a vacancy is caused by death, resignation or removal or otherwise of President). While so acting, he ceases to perform the function of the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

COUNCIL OF MINISTERS

There is a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to aid and advise the President in exercise of his functions. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President who also appoints other ministers on the advice of Prime Minister. The Council is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.

It is the duty of the Prime Minister to communicate to the President all decisions of Council of Ministers relating to administration of affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation and information relating to them.

The Council of Ministers comprises Ministers who are members of Cabinet, Ministers of State (independent charge), Ministers of State and Deputy Ministers.

LEGISLATURE

Legislature of the Union which is called Parliament, consists of President and two Houses, known as Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and House of the People (Lok Sabha). Each House of Parliament has to meet within six months of its previous sitting. A joint sitting of two Houses can be held in certain cases.

RAJYA SABHA

The Constitution provides that the Rajya Sabha shall consist of 250 members, of which 12 members shall be nominated by the President from amongst persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and social service; and not more than 238 representatives of the States and of the Union Territories.

Elections to the Rajya Sabha are indirect; members representing states are elected by elected members of legislative assemblies of the states in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote, and those representing union territories are chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe. The Rajya Sabha is not subject to dissolution; one-third of its members retire every second year.

The Rajya Sabha, at present, has 245 seats. Of these, 233 members represent the States and the Union Territories and 12 members are nominated by the President. The names of members of Rajya Sabha and party affiliation are given in Appendices.

LOK SABHA

The Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of people chosen by direct election on the basis of adult suffrage. The maximum strength of the House envisaged by the Constitution is now 552 (530 members to represent States/20 to represent Union Territories and not more than two members of Anglo-Indian community to be nominated by the President, if, in his opinion, that community is not adequately represented in the House).

The total elective membership of the Lok Sabha is distributed among States in such a way that the ratio between the number of seats allotted to each State and population of the State is, as far as practicable, the same for all States. The Lok Sabha at present consists of 545 members. Of these, 530 members are directly elected from the States and 13 from Union Territories while two are nominated by the President to represent the Anglo-Indian community. The allocation of seats in the present Lok Sabha is based on the 1971 census and under the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution (1976) will continue to be so based until figures of the first census taken after 2000 AD become available.

The term of the Lok Sabha, unless dissolved, is five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time and not extending in any case, beyond a period of six months after the proclamation has ceased to operate. Thirteen Lok Sabhas have been constituted so far.

ADMINISTRATIVE SET-UP

The Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961 is made by the President of India under Article 77 of the Constitution for the allocation of business of the Government of India. The Ministries/Departments of the Government of India are created by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister under these Rules.

The business of the Government of India are transacted in the ministries/departments, secretariats and offices (referred to as "Department") as per the distribution of subjects specified in these Rules. Each of the Ministry (ies) will be assigned to a Minister by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. Each department will be generally under the charge of a Secretary to assist the Minister on policy matters and general administration.

The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for secretarial assistance to the Cabinet, its committees and ad hoc Groups of Ministers, and for maintenance of record of their decisions and proceedings. The Secretariat monitors implementation of the decisions/directions of the Cabinet/Cabinet Committees/ groups of ministers. The Secretariat is also responsible for the administration of the Government of India (Transaction of Business) Rules, 1961 and facilitates smooth transaction of business in ministries/departments of the Government by ensuring adherence to these Rules. The Secretariat assists in decision-making in Government by ensuring inter-ministerial co-ordination ironing out differences amongst ministries/departments and evolving consensus through the instrumentality of the standing/ad hoc committees of secretaries. Through this mechanism new policy initiatives are promoted. The Cabinet Secretariat ensures that the President, the Vice-President and ministers are kept informed of the major activities of all ministries/departments by means of monthly summary of their activities. Management of major crisis situations in the country and coordinating activities of various ministries in such a situation is also one of the functions of this Secretariat.

MINISTRIES/DEPARTMENTS OF THE GOVERNMENT

The Government consists of a number of ministries/departments, number and character varying from time to time on factors such as volume of work, importance attached to certain items, changes of orientation, political expediency, etc. On 15 August 1947, the number of ministries at the Centre was 18. As on 14 June 2000 the Government consisted of the following ministries/ departments under the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961.
1. Ministry of Agriculture (Krishi Mantralaya)
  Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (Krishi aur Sahkarita Vibhag) 
  Department of Agricultural Research and Education (Krishi Anusandhan aur Shiksha Vibhag) 
  Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (Pashupalan aur Dairy Yibhag) 
  Department of Food Processing Industries (Khadya Prasanskaran Udyog Vibhag) 
2. Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers (Rasayan aur Urvarak Mantralaya)
  Department of Chemicals and Petro-Chemicals (Rasayan aur Petro-Rasayan Vibhag) 
  Department of Fertilizers (Urvarak Vibhag) 
3. Ministry of Civil Aviation (Nagar Vimanan MantraJaya)
4. Ministry of Coal (KoyaJa Mantralaya)
5. Ministry of Commerce and Industry (Vanijya aur Udyog Mantralaya)
  Department of Commerce (Vanijya Vibhag)
  Deparatment of Industrial Policy and Promotion (Audyogik Niti aur Samvardhan Vibhag)
  Department of Supply (Poorti Vibhag)
6. Ministry of Communications (Sanchar Mantralaya)
  Department of Telecommunications (Doorsanchar Vibhag)
  Department of Posts (Dak Vibhag)
  Department of Telecom Services (Doorsanchar Seva Vibhag)
7. Ministry of Defence (Raksha Mantralaya) 
  Department of Defence (Raksha Vibhag)
  Department of Defence Production and Supplies (Raksha Utpadan aur Poorti Vibhag)
  Department of Defence Research and Development (Raksha Anusandhan aur Vikas Vibhag)
8. Ministry of Environment and Forests (Paryavaran aur Van Mantralaya)
9. Ministry of External Affairs (Videsh Mantralaya)
10. Ministry of Finance (Vitta Mantralaya)
  Department of Economic Affairs (Arthik Karya Vibhag)
  Department of Expenditure (Vyaya Vibhag)
  Department of Revenue (Rajaswa Vibhag)
11. Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Pood and Public Distribution (Upbhokta Mamle, Khadya aur Sarvajanik Vitaran Mantralaya)
  Department of Consumer Affairs (Upbhokta Mamie Vibhag)
  Department of Food and Public Distribution (Khadya aur Sarvajanik Vitaran Vibhag)
12. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (Swasthya aur Parivar Kalyan Mantralaya)
  Department of Health (Swasthya Vibhag)
  Department of Family Welfare. (Parivar Kalyan Vibhag) 
  Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy (Bhartiya Chikitsa Paddhati aur Homoeopathy Vibhag)
13. Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises (Bhari Udyog aur Lok Udyam Mantralaya)
  Department of Heavy Industries (Bhari Udyog Vibhag)
  Department of Public Enterprises (Lok Udyam Vibhag)
14. Ministry of Home Affairs (Grih Mantralaya)
  Department of Internal Security (Antarik Suraksha Vibhag)
  Department of States (Rajya Vibhag)
  Department of Official Language (Raj Bhasha Vibhag)
  Department of Home (Grih Vibhag)
  Department of Jammu and Kashmir Affairs (Jammu tatha Kashmir Vibhag)
15. Ministry of Human Resource Development (Manav Sansadhan Vikas Mantralaya)
  Department of Elementary Education and Literacy (Prarambhik Shiksha awe Saksharta Vibhag)
  Department of Secondary Education and Higher Education (Madhyamik Shiksha aur Uchchatar Shiksha Vibhag)
  Department of Women and Child Development (Mahila aur Bal Vikas Vibhag)
16. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (Soochna aur Prasaran Mantralaya)
17. Ministry of Information Technology (Soochna Praudyogiki Mantralaya)
18. Ministry of Labour (Shram Mantralaya)
19. Ministry of Law, Justice and Company Affairs (Vidhi, Nyaya aur Kampany Karya Mantralaya)
  Department of Legal Affairs (Vidhi Karya Vibhag)
  Legislative Department (Vidhayee Vibhag)
  Department of Justice (Nyaya Vibhag)
  Department of Company Affairs (Kampany Karya Vibhag)
20. Ministry of Mines (Khan Mantralaya)
21. Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (Aparamparik Oorja Srota Mantralaya)
22. Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs (Sansadiya Karya Mantralaya)
23. Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions (Kannik Lok Shikayat tatha Pension Mantraiaya)
  Department of Personnel and Training (Kannik aur Prashikshan Vibhag)
  Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (Prashasanik Sudhar aur Lok Shikayat Vibhag)
  Department of Pensions and Pensioners' Welfare (Pension aur Pension Bhogi Kalyan Vibhag)
24. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (Petroleum aur Prakritik Gas Mantralaya)
25. Ministry of Planning (Yojana Mantralaya)
26. Ministry of Power (Vidyut Mantralaya)
27. Ministry of Railways (Rail Mantralaya)
28. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (Sarak Parivahan aur Raj Marg Mantralaya)
29. Ministry of Rural Development (Gramin Vikas Mantralaya)
  Department of Rural Development (Gramin Vikas Vibhag)
  Department of Land Resources (Bhumi Sansadhan Vibhag)
  Department of Drinking Water Supply(Peya Jal Poorti Vibhag)
30. Ministry of Science and Technology (Vigyan aur Praudyogiki Mantralaya)
  Department of Science and Technology (Vigyan aur Praudyogiki Vibhag)
  Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (Vigyan aur Audyogik Anusandhan Vibhag)
  Department of Bio-Technology (Biotechnology Vibhag)
31. Ministry of Small Scale Industries and Agro and Rural Industries (Laghu Udyog aur Krishi Evam Gramin Udyog Mantralaya)
32. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (Sankhyiki aur Karyakram Karyanvayan Mantralaya)
33. Ministry of Shipping (Pot Parivahan Mantralaya)
34. Ministry of Steel (Ispat Mantralaya)
35. Ministry of Textiles (Vastra Mantralaya)
36. Ministry of Tourism and Culture (Paryatan aur Sanskriti Mantralaya)
  Department of Tourism (Paryatan Vibhag)
  Department of Culture (Sanskriti Vibhag)
37. Ministry of Tribal Affairs (Janjati Karya Mantralaya)
38. Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation (Shahari Vikas aur Garibi Upshaman Mantralaya)
  Department of Urban Development (Shahari Vikas Vibhag)
  Department of Urban Employment and Poverty Alleviation (Shaharii Rozgar aur Garibi Upshaman Vibhag 
39. Ministry of Water Resources (Jal Sansadhan Mantralaya) 
40. Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (Samajik Nyaya aur Adhikarita Mantralaya)
41. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (Vuva Karyakram aur Khel Mantralaya)
42. Department of Atomic Energy (Pannanu Oorja Vibhag)
43. Department of Ocean Development (Mahasagar Vikas Vibhag)
44. Department of Space (Antariksh Vibhag)
45. Cabinet Secretariat (Mantrimandal Sachivalaya)
46. President's Secretariat (Rashtrapati Sachivalaya)
47. Prime Minister's Office (Pradhan Mantri Karyalaya)
48. Planning Commission (Yojana Ayog)
49. Department of Disinvestment (Vinivesh Vibhag)


 

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