Cinema
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AUDIO-VISUAL MEDIA 
Feature films are being produced in India since 1912-13. While R.G. Torney along with N.G. Chitre made Pundalin in 1912, Dhundiraj Govind Phalke (1870-1914) produced Raja Harishchandra in 1913. The era of silent films was overtaken by the talkie era in 1931 when Ardeshir Irani (1886-1969) produced Alam Ara, tthough silent movies continued to be produced till 1934. India leads the world in the annual output of feature films. 
CENTRAL BOARD OF FILM CERTIFICATION 
Films can be publicly exhibited in India only after they have been certified by the Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC). The Board set up under the Cinematography Act, 1952, consists of a Chairman and a minimum of 12 and a maximum of 25 non-official members, all appointed by the Government. The Board functions with headquarters at Mumbai and nine regional offices at Bangalore, Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Chennai Thiruvananthapuram, New Delhi, Cuttack and Guwahati. The films produced in 14 languages are certified by nine offices all over the country. The regional offices are assisted in the examination of films by members of advisory panels which include eminent educationists, art-critics, journalists, social workers, psychologists, etc. The Board examines films for certification in accordance with the provisions contained in the Cinematography Act, 1952, Cinematography (Certification) Rules, 1983 and the guidelines issued by the Central Government. The Film Certification Appellate Tribunal, New Delhi hears appeals against the decision of the CBFC. In 2000, the Board certified 855 Indian and 252 foreign feature films, 1,058 Indian and 194 foreign short films. 111 Indian video feature films and 38 foreign video feature films, 503 Indian video short films and 167 foreign video short films. 
FILMS DIVISION 
The Films division was established in 1948 to record, propagate and preserve the achievements of a resurgent independent India on celluloid. It has been the vital link between the people and the Government apart from its pioneering role in spreading the documentary film movement in India and the world. It is the largest national agency devoted to the production and distribution of newsmagazines, quickies and documentaries. 
Apart from its newsmagazines and documentaries the Films Division also produces story-based featurettes and educational films both in-house for various ministries and departments of the Government of India and other State Governments. Its cartoon unit has a unique place of pride in the country churning out most delightful and educative animation shorts. 
The Films Division produces and dubs all the released films in all the regional languages apart from Hindi and English. It has ten distribution branch offices located at Bangalore, Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Chennai, Madurai, Nagpur, Thiruvananthapuram, and Vijayawada. Films Division has an archive with more than 8,000 titles on variety of subjects. 
Films Division started the Mumbai International Film Festival for Documentary, Short and Animation Films (MIFF) in 1990. Since then MIFF has grown in stature. At the sixth MIFF held during 3-9 February 2000, 542 entries from 34 countries were received. The seventh MIFF is scheduled to be held in February 2002. 
The Films Division organises film festivals in different parts of the country. During 2000-2001 the Documentary Film Festivals were organised in Jamshedpur, Jaipur and Chennai. The first ever Delhi International Film Festival for Documentary, Short and Animation Films (DIFF 2001), was a non-competitive festival. Over 100 films from 15 participating countries were ned during the Festival. 
During 1999-2000, the Films Division produced 34 news magazines and 84 documentaries/short featurettes and video films and earned revenue amounting to Rs.13.77 crore. 
NATI0NAL FILM DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION LIMITED 
National Film Development Corporation (NFDC) Limited incorporated in 1975, was restructured in 1980 after amalgamation of the Indian Motion Picture Export Corporation (IMPEC) and Film Finance Corporation (FFC). The primary objective of NFDC is to foster excellence in cinema and to develop state-of-the-art technology in audio-visual and related fields. The main activities of the corporation include financing and producing films with socially relevant themes, creative and artistic excellence and experimental in form; distribution and dissemination of films through various channels. NFDC also provides essential pre-production and post-production infrastructure to the film industry, in pace with the latest technology, which includes financing of theatre construction. NFDC also endeavours to promote culture and understanding of cinema by organising film weeks, Indian panorama and film festivals in collaboration with film societies, National Film Circle and other agencies representing Indian and foreign films.  
NGDC encourages the concept of low-budget films which are high in quality, content and production values. During 2000-01 (up to November 2000) production of three films in different languages were completed and six films were under production. The Corporation acquired 28 foreign films for television satellite rights and exported 46 films during the same period. NFDC’s film centre, Kolkata provides production and post-production facilities to the film industry of eastern-region. At the NFDC's laser sub-titling unit, Mumbai sub-titling in all the Latin character foreign languages and Arabic are being done. The unit also undertakes video sub-titling in various regional and foreign languages.  
The Cine Artists' Welfare Fund of India, set up by NFDC, is the biggest ever trust in the Indian Film Industry with a corpus of Rs.4.16 crore. During 2000-2001 (up to November), an amount of Rs.35 lakh was disbursed as pension to cine artists. 
NATIONAL FILM ARCHIVE OF INDIA 
The National Film Archive of India (NFAI), established in 1964, has three principal objectives, viz., (i) to trace, acquire and preserve the national film heritage for posterity; (ii) to clarify and document data and promote research relating to films and (iii) to act as a centre for dissemination of film culture. NFAI has been a member of the International Federation of Film Archives since May 1969, which enables it to get expert advice and material on preservation techniques, documentation, bibliographies, etc., and to exchange rare films with other members. As a part of its activities under dissemination of film culture, NFAI's headquarters at Pune and three Regional Offices at Bangalore, Kolkata and Thiruvananthapuram extend distribution library facilities to the members throughout the country. NFAI also conducts joint screening programmes at Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Cochin, Jamshedpur and Pune. Long and short-term courses in Film Appreciation are conducted in collaboration with FTII and other educational institutions and cultural organisations. 
CHILDREN'S FILM SOCIETY, INDIA 
Children's Film Society, India (CFSI) also known as National Centre of films for Children and Young People (N'CYP) was established in 1955 to provide value-based entertainment to children through the medium of films and is engaged in production, acquisition, distribution and exhibition of such films. The head office of the CFSI is located in Mumbai with branch/zonal offices in New Delhi and Chennai. Films produced/procured by the Society are exhibited through state/districtwise package programmes. During 2000-01, 88 programmes comprising over 2,064 shows with an audience of 12.11 lakh were organised. The films produced by CFSI screened in various National and International Film Festivals have won many awards. CFSI holds it International Film Festival every alternate year. 
DIRECTORATE OF ADVERTISING AND VISUAL PUBLICITY 
The Directorate of Adbvertising and Visual Publicity (DACP) is the central agency of the Government of India for undertaking advertising and audio visual publicity campaigns on behalf of various Ministries, Departments and autonomous bodies, except Railways and provides them a single-window service. The means of communication used are press advertisements, outdoor publicity, exhibitions and audio-visual and printed publicity materials like posters, folders, brochures, booklets, etc. 
SATYAJIT RAY FILM AND TELEVISION INSTITUTE 
Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute (SRFTI), Kolkata, an autonomous academic institution under the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, was registered in 1995 under the West Bengal Societies Registration Act, 1961. The Institute is a National Centre offering post-graduate diploma courses of three year duration in (i) Film Direction & Screenplay Writing; (ii) Motion Picture Photography; (iii) Editing (Film & Video) and (iv) Sound Recording. Films Bhor and Meena Jha produced by the first batch of students have won three national awards.

 

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